The Lingayat diaspora can be found in countries around the world, particularly the United States, Britain and Australia. About five decades ago, a bride and bridegroom could see each other's face only at the marriage pedestal, but increasing education and widespread urbanization have crept into the villages and slowly affected the ways of traditional matchmaking. Basveshwar and His Times. In Divisiveness and Social Conflict: An Anthropological Approach, edited by Alan R. Beals and Bernard J. Siegel, 117-138.  Similarly, the scripture of Lingayatism Basava Purana was completed in 1369 during the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I. A Populistic Community and Modernization in India. Recognition as a religious minority would make Lingayats "eligible for rights to open and manage educational institutions given by the Constitution to religious and linguistic minorities. They call this state aikya (unity with linga).  Lingayats persisted in their claims for decades, and their persistence was strengthened by Lingayat presence within the government, and a growing level of literacy and employment in journalism and the judiciary.  However, the British officials also noted the endogamous tradition and hereditary occupations of many Lingayats, which made their classification difficult. They believe that there is one and only one life and that a Lingayat can, by his or her deeds, make this life a hell or heaven. Socialization. "[web 5] Basava's teachings also got mixed-up with Vedic teachings because much sharana literature was lost after the exile of sharana authors from the Bijjala kingdom. But what has angered the community the most is the leaked caste census data, which tried to reduce the Lingayat population in the state to 9.8% from what was believed to be around 17%. It was presided over by the mystic Allamaprabhu, and numerous sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. Lingayats are engaged in an entire range of occupational activities—agriculture, commerce and trade, teaching and scholarship, blacksmithing, carpentry, weaving, oil pressing, hairdressing, etc. Identification. The Lingayat religion is the largest established religion in Karnataka. The Succession Act of 1956 that gave guaranteed equal rights to surviving children of deceased parents altered the bonds that once united the conjugal and natal families and brother-sister relationships. Orientation And the Village washerman's family also is involved in the city electric laundering establishment, the cobbler in its shoe stores, the blacksmith in tool-making jobs, and the goldsmith in the jewelry store. , Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas. ETHNONYM: Panjabi Lingayat villages are usually nucleated with houses built close to each other. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Nuclear or conjugal, the family does not live in isolation, as it is always embedded in the larger kin group. , Contemporary Lingayatism is influential in South India, especially in the state of Karnataka. The Lingayats speak Kannada, one of the four major Dravidian languages spoken in the south of India. Akka Mahadevi, Channabasavanna and Basavanna himself were participants in the Anubhava Mantapa.. Both are sacred texts in Lingayatism.  The 13th-century Telugu Virashaiva poet Palkuriki Somanatha, author of Basava Purana—a scripture of Veerashaivas, for example asserted, "Virashaivism fully conformed to the Vedas and the shastras. Due to their roots in the traditional schools, the gurusthalada monasteries were more conservative, while the viraktas "constituted the true Virasaiva monastic organisation, shaped by the ideals of Basava and his contemporaries. In historical literature, they are sometimes referred to as Lingawants, Lingangis, Lingadharis, Sivabhaktas, Virasaivas or Veerashaivas. Its first poetics, Kavirajamarga, and first grammar, Bhasa Bhusan, were written in the early ninth and eleventh centuries, respectively, and its literary history spans well over 1,000 years. Upon marriage, the bride goes to live with the groom's household. The corporation is seen as a move by Yediyurappa to further consolidate his position as "Lingayat Strongman", as he belongs to the community, amid talks of leadership change in the state BJP circles. ETHNONYMS: Chelofes, Galofes, Guiolof, Gyloffes, Ialofes, Iolof, Jalof, Jolof, Olof, Ouoloff, Valaf, Volof, Wollufs, Yaloffs, Yolof They are also called Virasaivas because of their deep love and commitment to their God, "the Omnipresent and Ever Compassionate.".  According to one of the estimates by a Lingayat politician around 7 per cent of people in Lingayat community come under SC/ST and OBCs. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. In the event of a breakdown, however, Lingayat attitudes toward divorce, especially in comparison with some other religious groups, are liberal and tolerant. Brill. [web 1] It is viewed as a "living, moving" divinity with the Lingayat devotee. For an educated Lingayat couple, neolocal residence is the norm. the individual starts with the phase of a devotee. , According to Virasaivism, skilful work and service to one's community, without discrimination, is a means to experiencing the divine, a sentiment that continues to be revered in present-day Virasaivas. and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Kin Groups and Descent. This remark about "rejecting rebirth" was repeated by others, states Schrader, and it led to the question whether Lingayatism is a religion distinct from other Indian religions such as Hinduism where metempsychosis and rebirth is a fundamental premise. Linguistic Affiliation. Given the explosive nature of the findings, the Siddaramaiah is in a dilemma on releasing the data before Assembly elections. ETHNONYMS: Dogom, Dogono, Habbe, Hambbe, Makbe, Tombo, Tommo, Toro Kannada Lingayat Matrimonial; Lingayat is the largest population of Karnataka with 21% of the total population in the state. (December 20, 2020). The Lingayat text Sunyasampadane grew out of the scholarly discussions in an Anubhava Mantapa, and according to Bill Aitken, these were "compiled at the Vijayanagara court during the reign of Praudha Deva Raya". ", According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "According to South Indian oral tradition, he was the actual founder of the Lingayats, but study of Kalachuri inscriptions indicates that, rather than founding a new sect, he in fact revived an existing one. After Karnataka, Maharashtra has significant number of Lingayats. There are as many as 99 sub-castes in the Lingayat community. In this narrative, Basava was regarded as a reviver of this ancient teaching. Priesthood among Lingayats is not ascriptive and is open to all irrespective of sex. Ideally, Lingayat kinship emphasizes the patrimonial principle, but in reality matrilineal orientations prevail both in sentiments and obligations. , According to a tradition which developed after Basava's time,[note 2] Veerashaivism was transmitted by five Panchacharyas, namely Renukacharya, Darukacharya, Ekorama, Panditharadhya, and Vishweswara, and first taught by Renukacharya to sage Agasthya, a Vedic seer. Yediyurappa pampers dominant communities by creating caste-based authorities in an attempt to win elections and widen his sphere of influence and counter the moves of the BJP central leadership against him. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Lingadharane is the ceremony of initiation among Lingayats. Lingayats believe in a one-and-only God and worship him in the form of istalinga, which resembles the shape of a globe. Medicine. Religious Beliefs.  This was objected and ridiculed by a Brahmin named Ranganna who said that Lingayats were not Shaiva Brahmins given their eclectic occupations that included washermen, traders, farmers and others, as well as their exogamous relationships with the royal family. [note 8] In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras". Since the collective solidarity of the kin group is the prime value in the community, family autonomy and privacy are never its concerns. Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. , The traditional legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be the founder of the Lingayats and its secular practices.  The term Lingayats came to be commonly used during the British colonial period. "[web 7] Sri Sharanbasava Devaru further states that Veerashaivism "started gaining importance only after 1904 with some mutts mixing Veerashaivism with Lingayatism. [web 1][note 4] because it shares beliefs with Indian religions,[note 5] and "their [Lingayats] beliefs are syncretistic and include an assemblage of many Hindu elements, including the name of their god, Shiva, who is one of the chief figures of the Hindu pantheon. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. A Handbook of Viraśaivism. However, the prayers and offerings are not led by Brahmin priests but by Lingayat priests. In carrying this out, they have long been aware that social mobilization could not be achieved without a political orientation. Religious Practitioners. " According to Blake Michael, the term Veerashaivism refers both to a "philosophical or theological system as well as to the historical, social and religious movement which originated from that system." Lingayat sect does not believe in Hindu caste system and believe in monotheistic world. Death and Afterlife.  According to R. Blake Michael, rebirth and ways to end rebirth was extensively discussed by Basava, Allama Prabhu, Siddharameshawar and other religious saints of Lingayatism. 3.Those who wear both Lingam and Brahmanical cord. Chekki, D. A.  Saints and Sharanas like Allamaprabhu, Akka Mahadevi, Siddarama and Basava were at the forefront of this development during the 12th century. Patil, Chandan Gowda also claims that "the Lingayats were recorded as a caste within the Hindu religion for the first time in the 1881 census done in Mysore state. [note 3], In 2000, the Akhila Bharatha [All India] Veerashaiva Mahasabha started a campaign for recognition of "Veerashaivas or Lingayats" as a non-Hindu religion, and a separate listing in the Census. Effective kin are those closely related by descent and marriage, and mate selection among such kin is preferential. Monographs and Theoretical Studies in Sociology and Anthropology in Honour of Nels Anderson, no. Significant populations are also found in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana bordering Karnataka, as well as Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Gujarat. Ramanujan, A. K. (1973). The slogan is attributed to Basava, and generally interpreted to signify a work ethic for all social classes. [Editor's Note: In this article the established spellings of Kota words have been retained, al…, Serbs They are a numerous group in India, especially in the state of Karnataka. " Somanatha repeatedly stated that "he was a scholar of the four Vedas". The extended family is regarded as the ideal arrangement among rural Lingayats, although the nuclear family is actually more common and there are occasional instances of conjugal family arrangements. Lingayats are actively involved Politically through participation in the democratic establishment in Karnataka. They believe that devotion to Basava and the other Lingayat saints will bring them their blessings and guard their lives. The Lingayat people are known for wearing a linga, an object representing a god; in this case, Shiva.  In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. They celebrate most of the Hindu festivals and their own festivals; Several works are attributed to the founder of Lingayatism movement, Basava, and these texts are revered in the Lingayat community. 4, 81-124. Her parents and siblings fulfilled their moral obligations to her, especially in times of crisis. [web 18], The early Lingayat literature, including the Basava Purana, highly praises militant action against anyone who persecutes a fellow Lingayat or their ability to practice their Shiva-bhakti traditions. ", In the 14th-15th century, a Lingayat revival took place in northern Karnataka in the Vijayanagara Empire. Others opposed the campaign, noting that "the population of Lingayats would be mentioned separately alongside those of Arya Samajists and a few others considered as subgroups of Hinduism in the final Census figures. The Lingayat system of social stratification is built largely around wealth, power, and prestige in both secular and religious spheres. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population[note 18] Lingayat, also known as Veerashaiva / ˈ v ɪər ə ʃ aɪ v ə /, are a community in India who adhere to Lingayatism. The Lingayat theological doctrine of saktivisistadvaita (a qualified monistic philosophy characterized by Sakti, the spiritual power of Shiva); its socialization agents, the guru and the jangama (monk) ; and its notion of istalinga are distinctively Lingayat in character. Levinson & Christensen (2002): "The Lingayats are a Hindu sect concentrated in the state of Karnataka (a southern provincial state of India), which covers 191,773 square kilometres.  According to Schouten, Siddharama and Allama debated the doctrine of karma as the law of work and merit, but Allama persuaded Siddharama that such merit is a low-level mechanism, and real mystical achievement transcends "the sphere of works and rewards" and is void of self-interest. Their centers of pilgrimage are at Kalyan, Ulive, and Srisaila, the places where Basava, his nephew Cennabasava, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi are laid to eternal rest. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.  The Sharana-movement was inspired by the Nayanars, and emphasised personal religious experience over text-based dogmatism. , The Virasaivas were an important part of the Vijayanagara empire army. The north and central regions are their heartland, although Lingayats are found also in the four neighboring states of Maharashtra and Goa to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the east, and Tamil Nadu to the south. ", According to Chandan Gowda, these five mathas "predate Basava. The Lingayats constituted 17 per cent of the population … POPULATION: 15 million (estimate) LANGUAGE: Kannada RELIGION: Lingayat RELATED ARTICLES: Vol. Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. At death, he or she is believed to have returned to God and to be united with him. On eleventh day, a feast will be arranged to friends and relatives and this event is called as Shivagana Aradhana. Their temples include Shiva linga in the sanctum, a sitting Nandi facing the linga, with mandapa and other features. Basava Panchami (known as Nag Panchami) on this day Basava merged with God, Neelamma Shashti (next day of Basava Panchami) on this day Neelagangambike merged with God, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 14:52. Ganāchāra – Defence of the community and its tenets. Much of economic life was regulated by the aya system, in which exchange of goods and services took place. Dharwar: Karnatak University. [web 1] Initially known as Veerashaivas, since the 12th century adherents of this faith are known as Lingayats. However, Kerala's population growth rateis far lower than the national average, although Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 — adding 15.6 million people to reach a total of 29.1 million residents in 1991 — the population stood at 31.8 million by 2001 and 33.3 million in 2011. LOCATION: central and western part of the Balkan Peninsula (Southeastern Europe) , Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo…, Wolof Govt steps on Lingayat Corpn subject to our orders, says HC The petitioner argued that the Veerashaiva Lingayats constitute 17 per cent of the total population in the state. The community has a strong presence in the state especially in the north. "[web 10][note 15] In 2013, the Akhila Bharatha [All India] Veerashaiva Mahasabha president was still lobbying for recognition of Lingayatism as a separate religion, arguing that Lingayatism rejects the social discrimination propagated by Hinduism. ."  The adherents of Lingayatism are known as Lingayats. 200-228. The census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer. He is formless, qualityless, and an embodiment of love and compassion. This region was a stronghold of Jainism and Shaivism. Share Via Email ", For an overview of the Shaiva Traditions, see Flood, Gavin, "The Śaiva Traditions", in: Flood (2003), pp. Arts. Traditionally, Lingayat farmers produced partly for local consumption and partly for a market economy, and plowed their land with metal-shod wooden plows powered by pairs of bullocks. . Sadāchāra – Attention to vocation and duty, and adherence to the seven rules of conduct issued by. , After Basava's death, Shaivism consolidated its influence in southern India, meanwhile adjusting to Hindu orthodoxy. Jamdar, "who is spearheading the demand" in 2017/2018 for recognition of Lingayats as a separate religion, and M.B. [web 5] A central text in this tradition is Siddhanta Shikhamani, which was written in Sanskrit, and gives an elaboration of "the primitive traits of Veerashaivism [found] in the Vedas and the Upanishads" and "the concrete features given to it in the latter parts (Uttarabhaga) of the Saivagamas. The hundreds of biographies of successful Lingayats (published by the Gadag Tontadarya monastery) provide ample evidence of this awareness. These compositions, collectively known as the Vacanas, have the status of sacred literature, are taught to Lingayats from childhood, and are internalized by them. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. Lingayats are therefore involved in all sectors of the economy. In Coorg district, a section of the local population feels that the Kodavas need minority status as well. It is to be worn on the chest, over the seat of the indwelling deity within the heart. Everyday, the devotee removes this personal linga from its box, places it in left palm, offers puja and then meditates about becoming one with the linga, in his or her journey towards the atma-linga. [note 6] The Lingayats always wear the Ishtalinga held with a necklace.  This success led to Nayaka being appointed as the governor of the coastal Karnataka Kanara region. Some people wear it on the chest or around the body using a thread. Dharwar: The Literary Committee, Lingayat Education Association. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Ishwaran, K. (1989).  'Lingayatism' may refer to the whole Lingayat community, but also to a contemporary (sub)tradition dedicated to Basava's original thought, and to a movement within this community which strives toward recognition as an independent religion. A common practice among Lingayat parents is to arrange their children's marriages. Patil said the community with a 17% population in Karnataka had made a significant contribution in the state. In 2018, both Maski and Basavakalyan were with Congress. Traditionally, legal rights favored the patrilineage. Lingayats are strict vegetarians. Political Organization. The dead body is washed and laid cross-legged against wall for sometime and then it is taken to graveyard in a sitting position in a procession with well dressed, decorated flowers on an ornamental bier with vachana bhajane. A threshold and a door frame with carved figures of Basava lead to the second section, which consists of units used for housing the cattle and for domestic purposes, including a kitchen, a storeroom, and a puja (worship) room.  As a leader, he developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva". [web 4][note 7], Lingayatism is derived from the Sanskrit root linga (Shiva's mark) and suffix ayta. Villages are dispersed and connected by paths and main roads that link them to the national highways. [web 2][note 2], Lingayatism was founded, or revived,[note 2] by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava in Karnataka. Subsistence and Commercial Activities. The Lingayat people are known for wearing a linga, an object representing a god; in this case, Shiva. Vol. For them Sanskrit (like church Latin) is the vehicle of feudal values, inherited inequalities, and priestly prerogatives; so they identify with Kannada and contribute to its literary richness and variety. Marriage. Such interdependence is seen on occasions of births, weddings, fairs, and festivals. "[web 12]. Kerala's people are most densely settled in the coastal region, leaving the east… Wikimedia Commons. The local artisan groups and labor depended upon the farmers for their survival. "Lingāyat (Vīrasaiva)." Though lingadharane can be performed at any age, it is usually performed when a fetus in the womb is 7–8 months old. Upon marriage, a girl took her husband's surname and all the legal claims that went with it. ", According to Schouten, in the early 20th century Lingayats tried to raise their social status, by stressing the specific characteristics of their history and of their religious thought as being distinctive from the Brahmin-dominated Hindu-culture.  Currently, 16 castes of Lingayats have been occorded the OBC status by the Central Governement.  Lingayats celebrate anniversaries (jayanti) of major religious leaders of their tradition, as well as Hindu festivals such as the Shivaratri and Ganesh Chaturthi.  After the collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, the Lingayat Keladi/Ikkeri dynasty ruled the coastal Karnataka till the invasion and their defeat by Hyder Ali seeking a Mysore-based Sultanate. "[web 8], The Sharana-movement, which started in the 11th century, is regarded by some as the start of Veerashaivism. Kinship Terminology. Jan Peter Schouten states that it tends towards monotheism with Shiva as the godhead, but with a strong awareness of the monistic unity of the Ultimate Reality. The urban Lingayat Family is primarily nuclear but it too maintains its ties with its rural kin by providing shelter, hospitality, and employment opportunities, when needed. Ceremonies. This is on hold status. For Lingayats there is no life after death. ETHNONYMS: The Nupe call themselves Nupeci and refer to their language as Nupe. Basava, the founding father of Lingayat religion, was also in some ways the first to lead a successful crusade in the early part of the twelfth century a.d. against domination by the Sanskrit language in order to make Kannada, the language of the common man, the medium of literary expression. Her loss of a share in her parental family property, however, was met through adequate gifts of jewelry and gold during her marriage and on successive visits to the natal family. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Break down of population by caste. , Historically, Lingayats were known as Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva.  Two kinds of monastic orders developed. He taught against the caste system and its regulations. The contribution of Lingayats to the cultural heritage of Karnataka is significant. , After initially supporting Basava, king Bijjala II disagreed with Basava's rejection of caste distinctions. Shivapur: A South Indian Village. These days "love" Marriages are heard of even in the countryside. The Lingayat monasteries, spread across contemporary Karnataka's small and large towns, run schools and colleges with free room and board for needy students. , Lingayatism considers the Vedas as a means, but not the sanctimonious end. [note 14] According to the sociologist M. N. Srinivas, Lingayats traditionally believed themselves to be equal in status to Brahmins, and some orthodox Lingayats were so anti-Brahmin that they would not eat food cooked or handled by Brahmins. Domestic Unit. , In early decades of the 19th-century, the Lingayats were described by British officials such as Francis Buchanan as a conglomeration of Hindu castes with enormous diversity and eclectic, egalitarian social system that accepted converts from all social strata and religions. ", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSchouten1995 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlake_Michael1992 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1981 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBairy2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAhmadIshwaran1973 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1980 (, Kalburgi & Lankesh questioned Lingayats, Modi & Rahul courted them, "Enne hole,Tarikere Taluk, Chikkamagaluru Dist, Karnataka", "Yediyurappa holds off plan to add Lingayats in OBC central list after Amit Shah intervention", "Cabinet defers decision on inclusion of Lingayats in OBC", "Lingayat SCs, OBCs may not welcome minority tag", http://gazetteer.kar.nic.in/gazetteer/pdf/1987-4-0/Belgaum_1987_Chapter3_People.pdf, "Lingayat is an independent religion: Seer", Why Lingayat-Veerashaiva feud is bad news for BJP in Karnataka, "A medieval poet bedevils India's most powerful political party", "How Religious Minority Status to Lingayats would Impact Karnataka Elections 2018", Now, government bats for separate religion for Lingayats, ‘Veerashaivas are Lingayats and they are Hindus, no question of separate religion’: Yeddyurappa, "Will welcome it if CM contests from north Karnataka, says Yeddyurappa", "Karnataka recommends minority status for Lingayat community: Will it impact Congress, BJP in upcoming polls? In The Mysore Tribes and Castes, edited by H. V. Nanjundayya and L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer. [web 3], The origins of Lingayatism is traced to the 11th- and 12th-century CE in a region that includes northern Karnataka and nearby districts of South India. This group formed in the 12th century by Basava, a philosopher and a social reformer. “The state has a huge population of Veerashaiva-Lingayats, of which there are people who are economically, socially and educationally backward. The move is said to be an attempt to woo voters from Lingayat community, which constitute 17 per cent of state population. Upon attaining the age of 8–11 years, the child receives Diksha from the family Guru to know the proper procedure to perform pooja of ishtalinga. The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously,[note 1] but Veerashaivism may refer to the broader Veerashaiva philosophy which predates Lingayatism, to the historical community now called Lingayats, and to a contemporary (sub)tradition within Lingayatism with Vedic influences. Regardless of one's vocation, Lingayatism suggests giving and donating a part of one's time, effort and income to one's community and to religious mendicants. Another group of Virasaivas merchants turned warriors of the Vijayanagara empire were successful in defeating the Deccan Sultanates in the Lepakshi region (Karnataka-Andhra Pradesh border region). Can you retain the seats, considering that the Lingayat population is over 55,000 in both constituencies? Leiden: E. ].  Schouten calls this as a synthesis of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita and Shankara's Advaita traditions, naming it Shakti-Vishishtadvaita, that is monism fused with Shakti beliefs.
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